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KaTeX Reference

Everything that appears below may be found directly on the KaTeX website (it is included below to directly show what works on this website).


aa' a'a~\tilde{a} \tilde{a}g˚\mathring{g} \mathring{g}
aa'' a''ac~\widetilde{ac} \widetilde{ac}AB\overgroup{AB} \overgroup{AB}
aa^{\prime} a^{\prime}AB~\utilde{AB} \utilde{AB}AB\undergroup{AB} \undergroup{AB}
aˊ\acute{a} \acute{a}F\vec{F} \vec{F}AB\Overrightarrow{AB} \Overrightarrow{AB}
yˉ\bar{y} \bar{y}AB\overleftarrow{AB} \overleftarrow{AB}AB\overrightarrow{AB} \overrightarrow{AB}
a˘\breve{a} \breve{a}AB\underleftarrow{AB} \underleftarrow{AB}AB\underrightarrow{AB} \underrightarrow{AB}
aˇ\check{a} \check{a}ac\overleftharpoon{ac} \overleftharpoon{ac}ac\overrightharpoon{ac} \overrightharpoon{ac}
a˙\dot{a} \dot{a}AB\overleftrightarrow{AB} \overleftrightarrow{AB}AB\overbrace{AB} \overbrace{AB}
a¨\ddot{a} \ddot{a}AB\underleftrightarrow{AB} \underleftrightarrow{AB}AB\underbrace{AB} \underbrace{AB}
aˋ\grave{a} \grave{a}AB\overline{AB} \overline{AB}ABundefined\overlinesegment{AB} \overlinesegment{AB}
θ^\hat{\theta} \hat{\theta}AB\underline{AB} \underline{AB}ABundefined\underlinesegment{AB} \underlinesegment{AB}
ac^\widehat{ac} \widehat{ac}acˇ\widecheck{ac} \widecheck{ac}X\underbar{X} \underbar{X}

Accent functions inside \text{…}

aˊ\text{\'{a}} \'{a}a˜\text{\~{a}} \~{a}a˙\text{\.{a}} \.{a}a˝\text{\H{a}} \H{a}
aˋ\text{\`{a}} \`{a}aˉ\text{\={a}} \={a}a¨\text{\"{a}} \"{a}aˇ\text{\v{a}} \v{a}
aˆ\text{\^{a}} \^{a}a˘\text{\u{a}} \u{a}a˚\text{\r{a}} \r{a}

See also letters and unicode.


( )(~) ( )( )\lparen~\rparen \lparen
 ⌈~⌉ ⌈ ⌉ \lceil~\rceil \lceil
\uparrow \uparrow
[ ][~] [ ][ ]\lbrack~\rbrack \lbrack
 ⌊~⌋ ⌊ ⌋ \lfloor~\rfloor \lfloor
\downarrow \downarrow
{}\{ \} \{ \}{}\lbrace \rbrace \lbrace
⎰⎱ ⎰⎱\lmoustache \rmoustache \lmoustache
\updownarrow \updownarrow
 ⟨~⟩ ⟨ ⟩ \langle~\rangle \langle
 ⟮~⟯ ⟮ ⟯ \lgroup~\rgroup \lgroup
\Uparrow \Uparrow
\vert |\vert \vert┌ ┐ ┌ ┐\ulcorner \urcorner \ulcorner
\Downarrow \Downarrow
\Vert \|\Vert \Vert└ ┘ └ ┘\llcorner \lrcorner \llcorner
\Updownarrow \Updownarrow
 \lvert~\rvert \lvert
 \lVert~\rVert \lVert
\left.\right.\\backslash \backslash
 \lang~\rang \lang
< >\lt~\gt \lt \gt ⟦~⟧ ⟦ ⟧ \llbracket~\rrbracket \llbracket
 \lBrace~\rBrace \lBrace \rBrace

Delimiter Sizing

(AB)\left(\LARGE{AB}\right) \left(\LARGE{AB}\right)

(((((( \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg( ( \big( \Big( \bigg( \Bigg(



abcd\begin{matrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{matrix}\begin{matrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
abcd\begin{array}{cc}a & b\\c & d\end{array}\begin{array}{cc}
   a & b \\
   c & d
(abcd)\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{pmatrix}\begin{pmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
[abcd]\begin{bmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
abcd\begin{vmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{vmatrix}\begin{vmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
abcd\begin{Vmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{Vmatrix}\begin{Vmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
{abcd}\begin{Bmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{Bmatrix}\begin{Bmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
abcdefghi\def\arraystretch{1.5}\begin{array}{c:c:c} a & b & c \\ \hline d & e & f \\ \hdashline g & h & i \end{array}\def\arraystretch{1.5}
   a & b & c \\ \hline
   d & e & f \\
   g & h & i
x={aif bcif dx = \begin{cases} a &\text{if } b \\ c &\text{if } d \end{cases}x = \begin{cases}
   a &\text{if } b \\
   c &\text{if } d
aif bcif d}\begin{rcases} a &\text{if } b \\ c &\text{if } d \end{rcases}⇒…\begin{rcases}
   a &\text{if } b \\
   c &\text{if } d
abcd\begin{smallmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{smallmatrix}\begin{smallmatrix}
   a & b \\
   c & d
iΛ0<j<n\sum_{\begin{subarray}{l} i\in\Lambda\\ 0<j<n\end{subarray}}\sum_{

Display-only environments

Some environments can only be used in display mode.


a &=b+c\\


a=b+c=e+f\begin{equation} \begin{split} a &=b+c\\ &=e+f \end{split} \end{equation}


a&=b+c \\


a=b+cd+e=f\begin{align} a&=b+c \\ d+e&=f \end{align}


a=b \\


a=be=b+c\begin{gather} a=b \\ e=b+c \end{gather}




10x+3y=23x+13y=4\begin{alignat}{2} 10&x+&3&y=2\\ 3&x+&13&y=4 \end{alignat}


A @>a>> B \\
@VbVV @AAcA \\
C @= D


AaBbcC=D\begin{CD} A @>a>> B \\ @VbVV @AAcA \\ C @= D \end{CD}

Other KaTeX Environments

EnvironmentsHow they differ from those shown above
darray, dcases, drcases… apply displaystyle
matrix*, pmatrix*, bmatrix*
Bmatrix*, vmatrix*, Vmatrix*
… take an optional argument to set column
alignment, as in \begin{matrix*}[r]
equation*, gather*
align*, alignat*
… have no automatic numbering. Alternatively, you can use \nonumber or \notag to omit the numbering for a specific row of the equation.
gathered, aligned, alignedat… do not need to be in display mode.
… have no automatic numbering.
… must be inside math delimiters in
order to be rendered by the auto-render

Acceptable line separators include: \\, \cr, \\[distance], and \cr[distance]. Distance can be written with any of the KaTeX units.

The {array} environment supports | and : vertical separators.

The {array} environment does not yet support \cline or \multicolumn.

\tag can be applied to individual rows of top-level environments (align, align*, alignat, alignat*, gather, gather*).

Letters and Unicode

Greek Letters

Direct Input: ABΓΔEZHΘIKΛMNΞOΠPΣTΥΦXΨΩΑ Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι \allowbreak Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω αβγδϵζηθικλμνξoπρστυϕχψωεϑϖϱςφϝ\allowbreak α β γ δ ϵ ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ o π \allowbreak ρ σ τ υ ϕ χ ψ ω ε ϑ ϖ ϱ ς φ ϝ

A\Alpha \AlphaB\Beta \BetaΓ\Gamma \GammaΔ\Delta \Delta
E\Epsilon \EpsilonZ\Zeta \ZetaH\Eta \EtaΘ\Theta \Theta
I\Iota \IotaK\Kappa \KappaΛ\Lambda \LambdaM\Mu \Mu
N\Nu \NuΞ\Xi \XiO\Omicron \OmicronΠ\Pi \Pi
P\Rho \RhoΣ\Sigma \SigmaT\Tau \TauΥ\Upsilon \Upsilon
Φ\Phi \PhiX\Chi \ChiΨ\Psi \PsiΩ\Omega \Omega
Γ\varGamma \varGammaΔ\varDelta \varDeltaΘ\varTheta \varThetaΛ\varLambda \varLambda
Ξ\varXi \varXiΠ\varPi \varPiΣ\varSigma \varSigmaΥ\varUpsilon \varUpsilon
Φ\varPhi \varPhiΨ\varPsi \varPsiΩ\varOmega \varOmega
α\alpha \alphaβ\beta \betaγ\gamma \gammaδ\delta \delta
ϵ\epsilon \epsilonζ\zeta \zetaη\eta \etaθ\theta \theta
ι\iota \iotaκ\kappa \kappaλ\lambda \lambdaμ\mu \mu
ν\nu \nuξ\xi \xiο\omicron \omicronπ\pi \pi
ρ\rho \rhoσ\sigma \sigmaτ\tau \tauυ\upsilon \upsilon
ϕ\phi \phiχ\chi \chiψ\psi \psiω\omega \omega
ε\varepsilon \varepsilonϰ\varkappa \varkappaϑ\vartheta \varthetaϑ\thetasym \thetasym
ϖ\varpi \varpiϱ\varrho \varrhoς\varsigma \varsigmaφ\varphi \varphi
ϖ\varpi \varpiϱ\varrho \varrhoς\varsigma \varsigmaφ\varphi \varphi
ϝ\digamma \digamma

Other Letters

ı\imath \imath\nabla \nabla\Im \ImR\Reals \RealsŒ\text{\OE} \text{\OE}
ȷ\jmath \jmath\partial \partial\image \image\wp \wpø\text{\o} \text{\o}
\aleph \aleph\Game \Gamek\Bbbk \Bbbk\weierp \weierpØ\text{\O} \text{\O}
\alef \alef\Finv \FinvN\N \NZ\Z \Zß\text{\ss} \text{\ss}
\alefsym \alefsymC\cnums \cnumsN\natnums \natnumsa˚\text{\aa} \text{\aa}ı\text{\i} \text{\i}
\beth \bethC\Complex \ComplexR\R \RA˚\text{\AA} \text{\AA}ȷ\text{\j} \text{\j}
\gimel \gimel\ell \ell\Re \Reæ\text{\ae} \text{\ae}
\daleth \daleth\hbar \hbar\real \realÆ\text{\AE} \text{\AE}
ð\eth \eth\hslash \hslashR\reals \realsœ\text{\oe} \text{\oe}

Direct Input: ð∂ ∇ ℑ Ⅎ ℵ ℶ ℷ ℸ ⅁ ℏ ð − ∗ ÀÁÂÃÄÅÆÇÈÉÊËÌÍÎÏÐÑÒÓÔÕÖÙÚÛÜÝÞßàáâãäåçèéêëìíîïðñòóôöùúûüýþÿ ₊₋₌₍₎₀₁₂₃₄₅₆₇₈₉ₐₑₕᵢⱼₖₗₘₙₒₚᵣₛₜᵤᵥₓᵦᵧᵨᵩᵪ⁺⁻⁼⁽⁾⁰¹²³⁴⁵⁶⁷⁸⁹ᵃᵇᶜᵈᵉᵍʰⁱʲᵏˡᵐⁿᵒᵖʳˢᵗᵘʷˣʸᶻᵛᵝᵞᵟᵠᵡ

Math-mode Unicode (sub|super)script characters will render as if you had written regular characters in a subscript or superscript. For instance, A²⁺³ will render the same as A^{2+3}.

Unicode Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols

Bold𝐀-𝐙 𝐚-𝐳 𝟎-𝟗\text{𝐀-𝐙 𝐚-𝐳 𝟎-𝟗}Double-struck𝔸-Z 𝕜\text{𝔸-}ℤ\ 𝕜
Italic𝐴-𝑍 𝑎-𝑧\text{𝐴-𝑍 𝑎-𝑧}Sans serif𝖠-𝖹 𝖺-𝗓 𝟢-𝟫\text{𝖠-𝖹 𝖺-𝗓 𝟢-𝟫}
Bold Italic𝑨-𝒁 𝒂-𝒛\text{𝑨-𝒁 𝒂-𝒛}Sans serif bold𝗔-𝗭 𝗮-𝘇 𝟬-𝟵\text{𝗔-𝗭 𝗮-𝘇 𝟬-𝟵}
Script𝒜-𝒵\text{𝒜-𝒵}Sans serif italic𝘈-𝘡 𝘢-𝘻\text{𝘈-𝘡 𝘢-𝘻}
Fractur𝔄-Z 𝔞-𝔷\text{𝔄-}ℨ\text{ 𝔞-𝔷}Monospace𝙰-𝚉 𝚊-𝚣 𝟶-𝟿\text{𝙰-𝚉 𝚊-𝚣 𝟶-𝟿}



5\cancel{5} \cancel{5}a+b+cnote\overbrace{a+b+c}^{\text{note}} \overbrace{a+b+c}^{\text{note}}
5\bcancel{5} \bcancel{5}a+b+cnote\underbrace{a+b+c}_{\text{note}} \underbrace{a+b+c}_{\text{note}}
ABC\xcancel{ABC} \xcancel{ABC}\not = \not =
abc\sout{abc} \sout{abc}π=cd\boxed{\pi=\frac c d} \boxed{\pi=\frac c d}
ana_{\angl n} $a_{\angl n}ana_\angln a_\angln

\tag{hi} x+y^{2x}

x+y2x(hi)\tag{hi} x+y^{2x}

\tag*{hi} x+y^{2x}

x+y2xhi\tag*{hi} x+y^{2x}

Line Breaks

KaTeX 0.10.0+ will insert automatic line breaks in inline math after relations or binary operators such as “=” or “+”. These can be suppressed by \nobreak or by placing math inside a pair of braces, as in {F=ma}. \allowbreak will allow automatic line breaks at locations other than relations or operators.

Hard line breaks are \\ and \newline.

In display math, KaTeX does not insert automatic line breaks. It ignores display math hard line breaks when rendering option strict: true.

Vertical Layout

xnx_n x_n=!\stackrel{!}{=} \stackrel{!}{=}aba \atop b a \atop b
exe^x e^x=!\overset{!}{=} \overset{!}{=}abca\raisebox{0.25em}{$b$}c a\raisebox{0.25em}{$b$}c
$_u^o $ _u^o =!\underset{!}{=} \underset{!}{=}a+(abc)a+\left(\vcenter{\frac{\frac a b}c}\right) a+\left(\vcenter{\hbox{$\frac{\frac a b}c$}}\right)



\raisebox and \hbox put their argument into text mode. To raise math, nest $…$ delimiters inside the argument as shown above.

\vcenter can be written without an \hbox if the strict rendering option is false. In that case, omit the nested $…$ delimiters.

Overlap and Spacing

=/{=}\mathllap{/\,} {=}\mathllap{/\,}(x2)\left(x^{\smash{2}}\right) \left(x^{\smash{2}}\right)
/=\mathrlap{\,/}{=} \mathrlap{\,/}{=}y\sqrt{\smash[b]{y}} \sqrt{\smash[b]{y}}

1ijnxij\displaystyle\sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}} x_{ij} \sum_{\mathclap{1\le i\le j\le n}} x_{ij}

KaTeX also supports \llap, \rlap, and \clap, but they will take only text, not math, as arguments.


\,³∕₁₈ em space\kern{distance}space, width = distance
\thinspace³∕₁₈ em space\mkern{distance}space, width = distance
\>⁴∕₁₈ em space\mskip{distance}space, width = distance
\:⁴∕₁₈ em space\hskip{distance}space, width = distance
\medspace⁴∕₁₈ em space\hspace{distance}space, width = distance
\;⁵∕₁₈ em space\hspace*{distance}space, width = distance
\thickspace⁵∕₁₈ em space\phantom{content}space the width and height of content
\enspace½ em space\hphantom{content}space the width of content
\quad1 em space\vphantom{content}a strut the height of content
\qquad2 em space\!– ³∕₁₈ em space
~non-breaking space\negthinspace– ³∕₁₈ em space
\<space>space\negmedspace– ⁴∕₁₈ em space
\nobreakspacenon-breaking space\negthickspace– ⁵∕₁₈ em space


distance will accept any of the KaTeX units.

\kern, \mkern, \mskip, and \hspace accept unbraced distances, as in: \kern1em.

\mkern and \mskip will not work in text mode and both will write a console warning for any unit except mu.

Logic and Set Theory

\forall \forall\complement \complement\therefore \therefore\emptyset \emptyset
\exists \exists\subset \subset\because \because\empty \empty
\exist \exist\supset \supset\mapsto \mapsto\varnothing \varnothing
\nexists \nexists\mid \mid\to \to    \implies \implies
\in \in\land \land\gets \gets    \impliedby \impliedby
\isin \isin\lor \lor\leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow    \iff \iff
\notin \notin\ni \ni\notni \notni¬\neg \neg or \lnot

For conventional set-builder notation, something like $\{ x \mid x<\frac{1}{2}\}$ will produce {xx<12}\{ x \mid x<\frac{1}{2}\}.

Direct Input: ¬∀ ∴ ∁ ∵ ∃ ∣ ∈ ∉ ∋ ⊂ ⊃ ∧ ∨ ↦ → ← ↔ ¬ ℂ ℍ ℕ ℙ ℚ ℝ


x2+x2\def\foo{x^2} \foo + \foo\def\foo{x^2} \foo + \foo
y2+y2\gdef\bar#1{#1^2} \bar{y} + \bar{y}\gdef\bar#1{#1^2} \bar{y} + \bar{y}
\edef\macroname#1#2…{definition to be expanded}
\xdef\macroname#1#2…{definition to be expanded}
\futurelet\foo\bar x

Macros can also be defined in the KaTeX rendering options.

Macros accept up to nine arguments: #1, #2, etc.

Macros defined by \gdef, \xdef, \global\def, \global\edef, \global\let, and \global\futurelet will persist between math expressions. (Exception: macro persistence may be disabled. There are legitimate security reasons for that.)

KaTeX has no \par, so all macros are long by default and \long will be ignored.

Available functions include:

\char \mathchoice \TextOrMath \@ifstar \@ifnextchar \@firstoftwo \@secondoftwo \relax \expandafter \noexpand

@ is a valid character for commands, as if \makeatletter were in effect.


Big Operators

\sum \sum\prod \prod\bigotimes \bigotimes\bigvee \bigvee
\int \int\coprod \coprod\bigoplus \bigoplus\bigwedge \bigwedge
\iint \iint\intop \intop\bigodot \bigodot\bigcap \bigcap
\iiint \iiint\smallint \smallint\biguplus \biguplus\bigcup \bigcup
\oint \oint\oiint \oiint\oiiint \oiiint\bigsqcup \bigsqcup

Direct Input: ∫ ∬ ∭ ∮ ∏ ∐ ∑ ⋀ ⋁ ⋂ ⋃ ⨀ ⨁ ⨂ ⨄ ⨆ ∯ ∰

Binary Operators

++ +\cdot \cdot\gtrdot \gtrdotx(moda)x \pmod a x \pmod a
- -\cdotp \cdotp\intercal \intercalx(a)x \pod a x \pod a
// /\centerdot \centerdot\land \land\rhd \rhd
* *\circ \circ\leftthreetimes \leftthreetimes\rightthreetimes \rightthreetimes
⨿\amalg \amalg\circledast \circledast.\ldotp \ldotp\rtimes \rtimes
&\And \And\circledcirc \circledcirc\lor \lor\setminus \setminus
\ast \ast\circleddash \circleddash\lessdot \lessdot\smallsetminus \smallsetminus
\barwedge \barwedge\Cup \Cup\lhd \lhd\sqcap \sqcap
\bigcirc \bigcirc\cup \cup\ltimes \ltimes\sqcup \sqcup
mod\bmod \bmod\curlyvee \curlyveexmodax \mod a x\mod a×\times \times
\boxdot \boxdot\curlywedge \curlywedge\mp \mp\unlhd \unlhd
\boxminus \boxminus÷\div \div\odot \odot\unrhd \unrhd
\boxplus \boxplus\divideontimes \divideontimes\ominus \ominus\uplus \uplus
\boxtimes \boxtimes\dotplus \dotplus\oplus \oplus\vee \vee
\bullet \bullet\doublebarwedge \doublebarwedge\otimes \otimes\veebar \veebar
\Cap \Cap\doublecap \doublecap\oslash \oslash\wedge \wedge
\cap \cap\doublecup \doublecup±\pm \pm or \plusmn\wr \wr

Direct Input: +/∘∙±×÷+ - / * ⋅ ∘ ∙ ± × ÷ ∓ ∔ ∧ ∨ ∩ ∪ ≀ ⊎ ⊓ ⊔ ⊕ ⊖ ⊗ ⊘ ⊙ ⊚ ⊛ ⊝ ◯ ∖ {}

Fractions and Binomials

ab\frac{a}{b} \frac{a}{b}ab\tfrac{a}{b} \tfrac{a}{b}(aa+1]\genfrac ( ] {2pt}{1}a{a+1} \genfrac ( ] {2pt}{1}a{a+1}
ab{a \over b} {a \over b}ab\dfrac{a}{b} \dfrac{a}{b}ab+1{a \above{2pt} b+1} {a \above{2pt} b+1}
a/ba/b a/ba1+1b\cfrac{a}{1 + \cfrac{1}{b}} \cfrac{a}{1 + \cfrac{1}{b}}
(nk)\binom{n}{k} \binom{n}{k}(nk)\dbinom{n}{k} \dbinom{n}{k}{nk}{n\brace k} {n\brace k}
(nk){n \choose k} {n \choose k}(nk)\tbinom{n}{k} \tbinom{n}{k}[nk]{n\brack k} {n\brack k}

Math Operators

arcsin\arcsin \arcsincosec\cosec \cosecdeg\deg \degsec\sec \sec
arccos\arccos \arccoscosh\cosh \coshdim\dim \dimsin\sin \sin
arctan\arctan \arctancot\cot \cotexp\exp \expsinh\sinh \sinh
arctg\arctg \arctgcotg\cotg \cotghom\hom \homsh\sh \sh
arcctg\arcctg \arcctgcoth\coth \cothker\ker \kertan\tan \tan
arg\arg \argcsc\csc \csclg\lg \lgtanh\tanh \tanh
ch\ch \chctg\ctg \ctgln\ln \lntg\tg \tg
cos\cos \coscth\cth \cthlog\log \logth\th \th
f\operatorname{f} \operatorname{f}
arg max\argmax \argmaxinj lim\injlim \injlimmin\min \minlim\varinjlim \varinjlim
arg min\argmin \argminlim\lim \limplim\plim \plimlim\varliminf \varliminf
det\det \detlim inf\liminf \liminfPr\Pr \Prlim\varlimsup \varlimsup
gcd\gcd \gcdlim sup\limsup \limsupproj lim\projlim \projlimlim\varprojlim \varprojlim
inf\inf \infmax\max \maxsup\sup \sup
f\operatorname*{f} \operatorname*{f}f\operatornamewithlimits{f} \operatornamewithlimits{f}

Functions in the bottom six rows of this table can take \limits.


x\sqrt{x} \sqrt{x}

x3\sqrt[3]{x} \sqrt[3]{x}


=!\stackrel{!}{=} \stackrel{!}{=}

== =\doteqdot \doteqdot\lessapprox \lessapprox\smile \smile
<< <\eqcirc \eqcirc\lesseqgtr \lesseqgtr\sqsubset \sqsubset
>> >\eqcolon \eqcolon or
\lesseqqgtr \lesseqqgtr\sqsubseteq \sqsubseteq
:: :\Eqcolon \Eqcolon or
\lessgtr \lessgtr\sqsupset \sqsupset
\approx \approx\eqqcolon \eqqcolon or
\lesssim \lesssim\sqsupseteq \sqsupseteq
:\approxcolon \approxcolon=\Eqqcolon \Eqqcolon or
\ll \ll\Subset \Subset
\approxcoloncolon \approxcoloncolon\eqsim \eqsim\lll \lll\subset \subset or \sub
\approxeq \approxeq\eqslantgtr \eqslantgtr\llless \llless\subseteq \subseteq or \sube
\asymp \asymp\eqslantless \eqslantless<\lt \lt\subseteqq \subseteqq
\backepsilon \backepsilon\equiv \equiv\mid \mid\succ \succ
\backsim \backsim\fallingdotseq \fallingdotseq\models \models\succapprox \succapprox
\backsimeq \backsimeq\frown \frown\multimap \multimap\succcurlyeq \succcurlyeq
\between \between\ge \ge\origof \origof\succeq \succeq
\bowtie \bowtie\geq \geq\owns \owns\succsim \succsim
\bumpeq \bumpeq\geqq \geqq\parallel \parallel\Supset \Supset
\Bumpeq \Bumpeq\geqslant \geqslant\perp \perp\supset \supset
\circeq \circeq\gg \gg\pitchfork \pitchfork\supseteq \supseteq or \supe
:\colonapprox \colonapprox\ggg \ggg\prec \prec\supseteqq \supseteqq
\Colonapprox \Colonapprox or
\gggtr \gggtr\precapprox \precapprox\thickapprox \thickapprox
:\coloneq \coloneq or
>\gt \gt\preccurlyeq \preccurlyeq\thicksim \thicksim
\Coloneq \Coloneq or
\gtrapprox \gtrapprox\preceq \preceq\trianglelefteq \trianglelefteq
\coloneqq \coloneqq or
\gtreqless \gtreqless\precsim \precsim\triangleq \triangleq
=\Coloneqq \Coloneqq or
\gtreqqless \gtreqqless\propto \propto\trianglerighteq \trianglerighteq
:\colonsim \colonsim\gtrless \gtrless\risingdotseq \risingdotseq\varpropto \varpropto
\Colonsim \Colonsim or
\gtrsim \gtrsim\shortmid \shortmid\vartriangle \vartriangle
\cong \cong\imageof \imageof\shortparallel \shortparallel\vartriangleleft \vartriangleleft
\curlyeqprec \curlyeqprec\in \in or \isin\sim \sim\vartriangleright \vartriangleright
\curlyeqsucc \curlyeqsucc\Join \Join:\simcolon \simcolon:\vcentcolon \vcentcolon or
\dashv \dashv\le \le\simcoloncolon \simcoloncolon\vdash \vdash
\dblcolon \dblcolon or
\leq \leq\simeq \simeq\vDash \vDash
\doteq \doteq\leqq \leqq\smallfrown \smallfrown\Vdash \Vdash
\Doteq \Doteq\leqslant \leqslant\smallsmile \smallsmile\Vvdash \Vvdash

Direct Input: =<>:= < > : ∈ ∋ ∝ ∼ ∽ ≂ ≃ ≅ ≈ ≊ ≍ ≎ ≏ ≐ ≑ ≒ ≓ ≖ ≗ ≜ ≡ ≤ ≥ ≦ ≧ ≫ ≬ ≳ ≷ ≺ ≻ ≼ ≽ ≾ ≿ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇ ⊏ ⊐ ⊑ ⊒ ⊢ ⊣ ⊩ ⊪ ⊸ ⋈ ⋍ ⋐ ⋑ ⋔ ⋙ ⋛ ⋞ ⋟ ⌢ ⌣ ⩾ ⪆ ⪌ ⪕ ⪖ ⪯ ⪰ ⪷ ⪸ ⫅ ⫆ ≲ ⩽ ⪅ ≶ ⋚ ⪋ ⟂ ⊨ ⊶ ⊷ ≔ ≕ ⩴

Negated Relations

\not = \not =

\gnapprox \gnapprox\ngeqslant \ngeqslant\nsubseteq \nsubseteq\precneqq \precneqq
\gneq \gneq\ngtr \ngtr\nsubseteqq \nsubseteqq\precnsim \precnsim
\gneqq \gneqq\nleq \nleq\nsucc \nsucc\subsetneq \subsetneq
\gnsim \gnsim\nleqq \nleqq\nsucceq \nsucceq\subsetneqq \subsetneqq
\gvertneqq \gvertneqq\nleqslant \nleqslant\nsupseteq \nsupseteq\succnapprox \succnapprox
\lnapprox \lnapprox\nless \nless\nsupseteqq \nsupseteqq\succneqq \succneqq
\lneq \lneq\nmid \nmid\ntriangleleft \ntriangleleft\succnsim \succnsim
\lneqq \lneqq\notin \notin\ntrianglelefteq \ntrianglelefteq\supsetneq \supsetneq
\lnsim \lnsim\notni \notni\ntriangleright \ntriangleright\supsetneqq \supsetneqq
\lvertneqq \lvertneqq\nparallel \nparallel\ntrianglerighteq \ntrianglerighteq\varsubsetneq \varsubsetneq
\ncong \ncong\nprec \nprec\nvdash \nvdash\varsubsetneqq \varsubsetneqq
\ne \ne\npreceq \npreceq\nvDash \nvDash\varsupsetneq \varsupsetneq
\neq \neq\nshortmid \nshortmid\nVDash \nVDash\varsupsetneqq \varsupsetneqq
\ngeq \ngeq\nshortparallel \nshortparallel\nVdash \nVdash
\ngeqq \ngeqq\nsim \nsim\precnapprox \precnapprox

Direct Input: ∉ ∌ ∤ ∦ ≁ ≆ ≠ ≨ ≩ ≮ ≯ ≰ ≱ ⊀ ⊁ ⊈ ⊉ ⊊ ⊋ ⊬ ⊭ ⊮ ⊯ ⋠ ⋡ ⋦ ⋧ ⋨ ⋩ ⋬ ⋭ ⪇ ⪈ ⪉ ⪊ ⪵ ⪶ ⪹ ⪺ ⫋ ⫌


\circlearrowleft \circlearrowleft\leftharpoonup \leftharpoonup\rArr \rArr
\circlearrowright \circlearrowright\leftleftarrows \leftleftarrows\rarr \rarr
\curvearrowleft \curvearrowleft\leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow\restriction \restriction
\curvearrowright \curvearrowright\Leftrightarrow \Leftrightarrow\rightarrow \rightarrow
\Darr \Darr\leftrightarrows \leftrightarrows\Rightarrow \Rightarrow
\dArr \dArr\leftrightharpoons \leftrightharpoons\rightarrowtail \rightarrowtail
\darr \darr\leftrightsquigarrow \leftrightsquigarrow\rightharpoondown \rightharpoondown
\dashleftarrow \dashleftarrow\Lleftarrow \Lleftarrow\rightharpoonup \rightharpoonup
\dashrightarrow \dashrightarrow\longleftarrow \longleftarrow\rightleftarrows \rightleftarrows
\downarrow \downarrow\Longleftarrow \Longleftarrow\rightleftharpoons \rightleftharpoons
\Downarrow \Downarrow\longleftrightarrow \longleftrightarrow\rightrightarrows \rightrightarrows
\downdownarrows \downdownarrows\Longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow\rightsquigarrow \rightsquigarrow
\downharpoonleft \downharpoonleft\longmapsto \longmapsto\Rrightarrow \Rrightarrow
\downharpoonright \downharpoonright\longrightarrow \longrightarrow\Rsh \Rsh
\gets \gets\Longrightarrow \Longrightarrow\searrow \searrow
\Harr \Harr\looparrowleft \looparrowleft\swarrow \swarrow
\hArr \hArr\looparrowright \looparrowright\to \to
\harr \harr\Lrarr \Lrarr\twoheadleftarrow \twoheadleftarrow
\hookleftarrow \hookleftarrow\lrArr \lrArr\twoheadrightarrow \twoheadrightarrow
\hookrightarrow \hookrightarrow\lrarr \lrarr\Uarr \Uarr
    \iff \iff\Lsh \Lsh\uArr \uArr
    \impliedby \impliedby\mapsto \mapsto\uarr \uarr
    \implies \implies\nearrow \nearrow\uparrow \uparrow
\Larr \Larr\nleftarrow \nleftarrow\Uparrow \Uparrow
\lArr \lArr\nLeftarrow \nLeftarrow\updownarrow \updownarrow
\larr \larr\nleftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow\Updownarrow \Updownarrow
\leadsto \leadsto\nLeftrightarrow \nLeftrightarrow\upharpoonleft \upharpoonleft
\leftarrow \leftarrow\nrightarrow \nrightarrow\upharpoonright \upharpoonright
\Leftarrow \Leftarrow\nRightarrow \nRightarrow\upuparrows \upuparrows
\leftarrowtail \leftarrowtail\nwarrow \nwarrow
\leftharpoondown \leftharpoondown\Rarr \Rarr

Direct Input: ← ↑ → ↓ ↔ ↕ ↖ ↗ ↘ ↙ ↚ ↛ ↞ ↠ ↢ ↣ ↦ ↩ ↪ ↫ ↬ ↭ ↮ ↰ ↱↶ ↷ ↺ ↻ ↼ ↽ ↾ ↾ ↿ ⇀ ⇁ ⇂ ⇃ ⇄ ⇆ ⇇ ⇈ ⇉ ⇊ ⇋ ⇌⇍ ⇎ ⇏ ⇐ ⇑ ⇒ ⇓ ⇔ ⇕ ⇚ ⇛ ⇝ ⇠ ⇢ ⟵ ⟶ ⟷ ⟸ ⟹ ⟺ ⟼

Extensible Arrows

abc\xleftarrow{abc} \xleftarrow{abc}underover\xrightarrow[under]{over} \xrightarrow[under]{over}
abc\xLeftarrow{abc} \xLeftarrow{abc}abc\xRightarrow{abc} \xRightarrow{abc}
abc\xleftrightarrow{abc} \xleftrightarrow{abc}abc\xLeftrightarrow{abc} \xLeftrightarrow{abc}
abc\xhookleftarrow{abc} \xhookleftarrow{abc}abc\xhookrightarrow{abc} \xhookrightarrow{abc}
abc\xtwoheadleftarrow{abc} \xtwoheadleftarrow{abc}abc\xtwoheadrightarrow{abc} \xtwoheadrightarrow{abc}
abc\xleftharpoonup{abc} \xleftharpoonup{abc}abc\xrightharpoonup{abc} \xrightharpoonup{abc}
abc\xleftharpoondown{abc} \xleftharpoondown{abc}abc\xrightharpoondown{abc} \xrightharpoondown{abc}
abc\xleftrightharpoons{abc} \xleftrightharpoons{abc}abc\xrightleftharpoons{abc} \xrightleftharpoons{abc}
abc\xtofrom{abc} \xtofrom{abc}abc\xmapsto{abc} \xmapsto{abc}
=abc\xlongequal{abc} \xlongequal{abc}

Extensible arrows all can take an optional argument in the same manner
as \xrightarrow[under]{over}.

Style, Color, Size, and Font

Class Assignment

\mathbin \mathclose \mathinner \mathop
\mathopen \mathord \mathpunct \mathrel


F=ma\color{blue} F=ma \color{blue} F=ma

Note that \color acts like a switch. Other color functions expect the content to be a function argument:

F=ma\textcolor{blue}{F=ma} \textcolor{blue}{F=ma}
F=ma\textcolor{#228B22}{F=ma} \textcolor{#228B22}{F=ma}
F=ma\colorbox{aqua}{$F=ma$} \colorbox{aqua}{$F=ma$}
F=ma\fcolorbox{red}{aqua}{$F=ma$} \fcolorbox{red}{aqua}{$F=ma$}

Note that, as in LaTeX, \colorbox & \fcolorbox renders its third argument as text, so you may want to switch back to math mode with $ as in the examples above.

For color definition, KaTeX color functions will accept the standard HTML predefined color names. They will also accept an RGB argument in CSS hexa­decimal style. The "#" is optional before a six-digit specification.


Ab0\mathrm{Ab0} \mathrm{Ab0}Ab0\mathbf{Ab0} \mathbf{Ab0}Ab0\mathit{Ab0} \mathit{Ab0}
Ab0\mathnormal{Ab0} \mathnormal{Ab0}Ab0\textbf{Ab0} \textbf{Ab0}Ab0\textit{Ab0} \textit{Ab0}
Ab0\textrm{Ab0} \textrm{Ab0}Ab0\bf Ab0 \bf Ab0Ab0\it Ab0 \it Ab0
Ab0\rm Ab0 \rm Ab0Ab0\bold{Ab0} \bold{Ab0}Ab0\textup{Ab0} \textup{Ab0}
Ab0\textnormal{Ab0} \textnormal{Ab0}Ab0\boldsymbol{Ab0} \boldsymbol{Ab}AB\Bbb{AB} \Bbb{AB}
Ab0\text{Ab0} \text{Ab0}Ab0\bm{Ab0} \bm{Ab0}AB\mathbb{AB} \mathbb{AB}
Ab0\mathsf{Ab0} \mathsf{Ab0}Ab0\textmd{Ab0} \textmd{Ab0}Ab0\frak{Ab0} \frak{Ab0}
Ab0\textsf{Ab0} \textsf{Ab0}Ab0\mathtt{Ab0} \mathtt{Ab0}Ab0\mathfrak{Ab0} \mathfrak{Ab0}
Ab0\sf Ab0 \sf Ab0Ab0\texttt{Ab0} \texttt{Ab0}AB0\mathcal{AB0} \mathcal{AB0}
Ab0\tt Ab0 \tt Ab0AB0\cal AB0 \cal AB0
AB\mathscr{AB} \mathscr{AB}

One can stack font family, font weight, and font shape by using the \textXX versions of the font functions. So \textsf{\textbf{H}} will produce H\textsf{\textbf{H}}. The other versions do not stack, e.g., \mathsf{\mathbf{H}} will produce H\mathsf{\mathbf{H}}.

In cases where KaTeX fonts do not have a bold glyph, \pmb can simulate one. For example, \pmb{\mu} renders as : μ\pmb{\mu}


AB\Huge AB \Huge ABAB\normalsize AB \normalsize AB
AB\huge AB \huge ABAB\small AB \small AB
AB\LARGE AB \LARGE ABAB\footnotesize AB \footnotesize AB
AB\Large AB \Large ABAB\scriptsize AB \scriptsize AB
AB\large AB \large ABAB\tiny AB \tiny AB


i=1n\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^n \displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^n
i=1n\textstyle\sum_{i=1}^n \textstyle\sum_{i=1}^n
x\scriptstyle x \scriptstyle x         (The size of a first sub/superscript)
x\scriptscriptstyle x \scriptscriptstyle x (The size of subsequent sub/superscripts)
limx\lim\limits_x \lim\limits_x
limx\lim\nolimits_x \lim\nolimits_x
x^2\verb!x^2! \verb!x^2!

\text{…} will accept nested $…$ fragments and render them in math mode.

Symbols and Punctuation

% comment\dots \dotsKaTeX\KaTeX \KaTeX
%\% \%\cdots \cdotsLaTeX\LaTeX \LaTeX
#\# \#\ddots \ddotsTeX\TeX \TeX
&\& \&\ldots \ldots\nabla \nabla
_\_ \_\vdots \vdots\infty \infty
_\text{\textunderscore} \text{\textunderscore}\dotsb \dotsb\infin \infin
\text{--} \text{--}\dotsc \dotsc\checkmark \checkmark
\text{\textendash} \text{\textendash} ⁣\dotsi \dotsi\dag \dag
\text{---} \text{---}\dotsm \dotsm\dagger \dagger
\text{\textemdash} \text{\textemdash}\dotso \dotso\text{\textdagger} \text{\textdagger}
~\text{\textasciitilde} \text{\textasciitilde}\sdot \sdot\ddag \ddag
^\text{\textasciicircum} \text{\textasciicircum}\mathellipsis \mathellipsis\ddagger \ddagger
` `\text{\textellipsis} \text{\textellipsis}\text{\textdaggerdbl} \text{\textdaggerdbl}
\text{\textquoteleft} text{\textquoteleft}\Box \Box\Dagger \Dagger
\lq \lq\square \square\angle \angle
\text{\textquoteright} \text{\textquoteright}\blacksquare \blacksquare\measuredangle \measuredangle
\rq \rq\triangle \triangle\sphericalangle \sphericalangle
\text{\textquotedblleft} \text{\textquotedblleft}\triangledown \triangledown\top \top
"" "\triangleleft \triangleleft\bot \bot
\text{\textquotedblright} \text{\textquotedblright}\triangleright \triangleright$\$ \$
 ⁣:\colon \colon\bigtriangledown \bigtriangledown$\text{\textdollar} \text{\textdollar}
\backprime \backprime\bigtriangleup \bigtriangleup£\pounds \pounds
\prime \prime\blacktriangle \blacktriangle£\mathsterling \mathsterling
<\text{\textless} \text{\textless}\blacktriangledown \blacktriangledown£\text{\textsterling} \text{\textsterling}
>\text{\textgreater} \text{\textgreater}\blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleleft¥\yen \yen
|\text{\textbar} \text{\textbar}\blacktriangleright \blacktriangleright\surd \surd
\text{\textbardbl} \text{\textbardbl}\diamond \diamond°\degree \degree
{\text{\textbraceleft} \text{\textbraceleft}\Diamond \Diamond°\text{\textdegree} \text{\textdegree}
}\text{\textbraceright} \text{\textbraceright}\lozenge \lozenge\mho \mho
\\text{\textbackslash} \text{\textbackslash}\blacklozenge \blacklozenge\diagdown \diagdown
\text{\P} \text{\P} or \P\star \star\diagup \diagup
§\text{\S} \text{\S} or \S\bigstar \bigstar\flat \flat
§\text{\sect} \text{\sect}\clubsuit \clubsuit\natural \natural
©\copyright \copyright\clubs \clubs\sharp \sharp
®\circledR \circledR\diamondsuit \diamondsuit\heartsuit \heartsuit
®\text{\textregistered} \text{\textregistered}\diamonds \diamonds\hearts \hearts
\circledS \circledS\spadesuit \spadesuit\spades \spades
a\text{\textcircled a} \text{\textcircled a}\maltese \maltese\minuso \minuso

Direct Input: § ¶ $ £ ¥ ∇ ∞ · ∠ ∡ ∢ ♠ ♡ ♢ ♣ ♭ ♮ ♯ ✓ … ⋮ ⋯ ⋱ !$ ‼ ⦵


In KaTeX, units are proportioned as they are in TeX.
KaTeX units are different than CSS units.

KaTeX UnitValueKaTeX UnitValue
emCSS embp1/72​ inch × F × G
exCSS expc12 KaTeX pt
mu1/18 CSS emdd1238/1157​ KaTeX pt
pt1/72.27 inch × F × Gcc14856/1157 KaTeX pt
mm1 mm × F × Gnd685/642 KaTeX pt
cm1 cm × F × Gnc1370/107​ KaTeX pt
in1 inch × F × Gsp1/65536 KaTeX pt


  • F = (font size of surrounding HTML text)/(10 pt)
  • G = 1.21 by default, because KaTeX font-size is normally 1.21 × the surrounding font size. This value can be overridden by the CSS of an HTML page.
em or ex\rule{1em}{1em}\scriptscriptstyle\rule{1em}{1em}\huge\rule{1em}{1em}